The Eleventh five year plan clearly articulates the importance, urgency and need for achievement of universal healthcare and nutrition through sectoral reforms and improvement of efficient, pro people delivery mechanism which can reach out to the most marginalized and inaccessible section of the society.
State has implemented various programme to improve the situation of under nutrition of mother and children. Under nutrition is the tragic combination of poor socio economic development, lack of health care knowledge among parents, administrative lapses and poor monitoring of the operational schemes. Under nutrition is caused by lack of food or lack of right type of food and inadequate or inappropriate type of feeding. It is found that 51.63% of children in 0-3 year of age suffer in any grade of under nutrition. As regards to optimal infant feeding practices, as prescribed by the World Health Assembly, only 33.5% of infants are exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life and 29.5% of infants continues breastfeeding with complementary family foods. Under nutrition is the tragic combination of poor socio economic development, lack of health care knowledge among parents, administrative lapses and poor monitoring of the operational schemes.Between NFHS II (1998-99) and NFHS III (2005-06) under nutrition among children in Orissa reduced from 54% to 44%, but this lacks the urgency and priority in terms of planning, monitoring, and strategic input.
Table: Nutrition status of Mother and Children in Orissa
|Underweight (under 3)||44%||46%|
|Wasted (under 3)||19%||19%|
|Stunted (under 3)||38%||38%|
|Anemia 6-35 m||74%||79%|
|HH using adequately iodized salt||40%||51%|
|Under 3 breast fed within 1 hr of birth||54%||23%|
|0-5m Exclusive breast feeding||50%||46%|
|Children <6y receiving any service at AWC||66%||33%|
|Children 0-59m weighed||56%||18%|
|Source: NFHS III (2005-06)|
Under-nutrition status as per Economic survey of Orissa 2010-11, however continues to be high, 40.7% of children below three years are underweight (weight for age), 45% stunted (height for their age) and 19.5% are wasted (weight for their height).
The state-level data mark the disparity within the districts/populations. District-level household survey (DLHS) on reproductive and child health (2002-2004) shows the level of under-nutrition is higher in the districts with predominantly tribal population. The NFHS III (2005-06) data also shows that the level of under-nutrition is higher among the tribal population. According to state tribal health report card 54.4 % of children below three years are underweight (weight for age), 57.2% stunted (height for their age) and 27.6% are wasted (weight for their height).
While levels of under-nutrition have shown a decline, anemia levels have shown no changes. Nearly 65 percent of children in the age group of 6-59 months are aneamic, reads out state health report card. Less than half (40%) of the families use adequately iodized salt in the state. Indicators pertaining to breastfeeding in the state compares favourably with the national average. From 1998 to 2006, there has been a jump of over 100% in initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth: from 24.9% (NFHS II, 1998-99) to 54% (NFHS III, 2005-06); also, 50% children are exclusively breastfed for first six months of life. Child development and nutrition status in the state has been performing superficially in the wake of poor planning, monitoring, and strategic input for scaling up some of the pilot projects.Download
Statistical profile of maternal and child nutrition: Orissa